The PROMIS(r) Pain Interference instruments (adult and child) measure the self-reported consequences of pain on relevant aspects of a person’s life and may include the extent to which pain hinders engagement with social, cognitive, emotional, physical, and recreational activities. Pain Interference also incorporates items probing sleep and enjoyment in life, though the item bank only contains one sleep item. The Pain Interference short form is universal rather than disease-specific. The Pain Interference items utilize a 7–day recall period (items include the phrase "the past 7 days"). PROMIS Pediatric Pain Interference instruments are available for adults (ages 18+), for children (ages 8-17) and parent proxy serving as proxy reporters for their child (youth ages 5-17).
A brief overview to the PROMIS Pain Interference instruments:
PROMIS Adult Short Form v1.0 – Pain Interference 6b
PROMIS Adult Short Form v1.0 – Pain Interference 4a
PROMIS Adult Short Form v1.0 – Pain Interference 6a
PROMIS Adult Short Form v1.0 – Pain Interference 8a
PROMIS Pediatric Short Form v1.0 – Pain Interference 8a
PROMIS Parent Proxy Short Form v1.0 – Pain Interference 8a
The PROMIS Adult Short Form v1.0 – Pain Interference 6b has been created as an independent instrument on this CDE website due to its unique question content. The original short form (6b) was constructed by the domain team with a focus on representing the range of the trait and also representing the content of the item bank. Domain experts reviewed short forms to give input on the relevance of each item. The original short forms are 6-10 items long. Psychometric properties and clinical input were both used and likely varied in importance across domains.
In addition, there are Pain Interference 4a, 6a, and 8a short forms, where items were selected based on rankings using two psychometric criteria: (1) maximum interval information; and (2) CAT simulations. Item rankings were similar for both criteria. These 4-item, 6-item and 8-item forms have been selected so that the items are nested (e.g., the 8-item form is the 6-item form plus two additional items). The 4a, 6a, and 8a short forms can be administered individually or as part of a PROMIS Profile (see PROMIS-29, 43 or 57 Profiles).
In selecting between short forms, the difference is instrument length. The reliability and precision of the short forms is highly similar. If you are working with an adult sample in which you wanted the most precise measure, select the 8a short form. If you are working in an adult sample in which you expected huge variability in a domain area and wanted different subdomains covered, you should select the 6b short form.
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures use answers that patients provide to questions to produce numeric values which indicate patients' state of wellbeing or suffering as well as their ability or lack of ability to function. The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS(r)), funded by the National Institutes of Health, aims to provide clinicians and researchers access to efficient, precise, valid, and responsive adult- and child-reported measures for physical, mental, and social well-being. PROMIS(r) tools measure what patients are able to do and how they feel by asking questions. PROMIS measures can be used as primary or secondary endpoints in clinical studies of the effectiveness of treatment, and PROMIS tools can be used across a wide variety of chronic diseases and conditions and in the general population. When used with traditional clinical measures of health, the data collected in PROMIS provide clinicians and researchers with important patient-reported information to better understand how various treatments might affect what patients are able to do and the symptoms they experience. The PROMIS initiative is part of the NIH goal to develop systems to support NIH-funded research supported by all of its institutes and centers.
This instrument is available on the PROMIS website through the Assessment Center, which houses all PROMIS instruments for each domain. Assessment Center is a free online research management tool enabling researchers to create study-specific websites for capturing participant data securely. PROMIS instruments are a central feature of the instrument library within Assessment Center. Any PROMIS measure can be included in an online study or downloaded for administration on paper. Detailed statistical information and development history about PROMIS items and instruments are available for review at www.nihpromis.org.
Amtmann DA, Cook KF, Jensen MP, Chen W-H, Choi SW, Revicki D, Cella D, Rothrock N, Keefe F, Callahan L, Lai J-S (2010). Development of a PROMIS item bank to measure pain interference. Pain 150(1):173-82. (PMCID: PMC2916053)
Amtmann D, Cook KF, Johnson KL, Cella D (2011). The PROMIS initiative: Involvement of rehabilitation stakeholders in development and examples of application in rehabilitation research. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 92(10 Suppl):S12-S19.
Cella D, Riley W, Stone A, Rothrock N, et al (2010). The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) developed and tested its first wave of adult self–reported health outcome item banks: 2005–2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 63(11):1179–94. (PMCID: PMC2965562)
Cella D, Yount S, Rothrock N, Gershon R, Cook K, et al (2007). The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): Progress of an NIH Roadmap Cooperative Group during its first two years. Medical Care 45(5):S3–11. (PMID: 17443116)
Cook KF, Bamer AM, Amtmann D, Molton IR, Jensen MP (2012). Six Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System short form measures have negligible age- or diagnosis-related differential item functioning in individuals with disabilities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 93(7):1289-91.
Fries JF, Cella D, Rose M, Krishnan E, Bruce B (2009). Progress in assessing physical function in arthritis: PROMIS short forms and computerized adaptive testing. Journal of Rheumatology 36(9):2061-6.
Garcia SF, Cella D, Clauser SB, Flynn KE, Lad T, Lai JS, Reeve B, Smith AW, Stone AA, Weinfurt KP (2007). Standardizing patient-reported outcomes assessment in cancer clinical trials: a PROMIS initiative. Journal of Clinical Oncology 25(32):5106-12.
Hays RD, Bjorner J, Revicki RA, Spritzer KL, Cella D (2009). Development of physical and mental health summary scores from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) global items. Quality of Life Research 18(7):873-80. (PMCID: PMC2724630)
Kim J, Chung H, Amtmann D, Revicki DA, Cook KF (2013). Measurement invariance of the PROMIS pain interference item bank across community and clinical samples. Quality of Life Research 22(3):501-7.
Overbeek CL, Nota SP, Jayakumar P, Hageman MG, Ring D (2015). The PROMIS physical function correlates with the QuickDASH in patients with upper extremity illness. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 473(1):311-7.
Reeve B, Hays RD, Bjorner J, Cook K, Crane PK, et al (2007). Psychometric evaluation and calibration of health-related quality of life item banks: Plans for the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Medical Care 45(5):S22-31.
Revicki DA, Kawata A, Harnam N, Chen W-H, Hays RD, Cella D (2009). Predicting EUROQOL (EQ-5D) scores from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) global items and domain item banks in a United States sample. Quality of Life Research 18(6):783-91. (PMCID: PMC2704290)
Rothrock NE, Hays RD, Spritzer K, Yount SE, Riley W, Cella D (2010). Relative to the general US population, chronic diseases are associated with poorer health-related quality of life as measured by the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 63(11):1195-1204. (PMCID: PMC2943571)
Schneider S, Choi SW, Junghaenel DU, Schwartz JE, Stone AA (2013). Psychometric characteristics of daily diaries for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(r)): A preliminary investigation. Quality of Life Research 22(7):1859-69. (PMCID: PMC3622151)
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